Classification Of Amputations And Fingers Missing At Birth



When one or more amputations appear upon a fingerprint card, it may be

filed separately from those having no amputations in order to

facilitate searching. It is to be noted that before it may be filed in

the amputation group, the card must contain a definite and unequivocal

statement or marking by the contributor to the effect that a certain

finger or fingers have been amputated or were missing at birth. This

prevents the appearance on later cards of impressions of fingers

thought to have been amputated but which in reality were merely

injured and bandaged when previous prints were submitted.



If one finger is amputated, it is given a classification identical

with that of the opposite finger, including pattern and ridge count,

or tracing, and referenced to every other possible classification.



If two or more fingers are amputated, they are given classifications

identical with the fingers opposite, with no additional references.



If two amputated fingers are opposite each other, both are given the

classification of whorls with meeting tracings.



When a fingerprint card bearing a notation of fingers missing at birth

is classified, the missing fingers should be treated as amputations in

that they are given the identical classifications of the opposite

fingers and are filed in the amputation group. As these fingers are

missing from a prenatal cause, they would have always received the

identical classification of the opposite finger on any previous

occasion.



If all 10 fingers are amputated or missing at birth, the

classification will be



M 32 W MMM.

-----------

M 32 W MMM



If both hands are amputated or missing at birth, the footprints should

be taken as they, too, bear friction ridges with definite patterns. A

footprint file is maintained by the FBI for identification purposes in

instances where the subject has all fingers amputated or missing at

birth.



Partially amputated fingers often present very complex problems and

careful consideration should be given to them. The question often

arises as to the appropriate groups in which they should be filed,

i.e., amputations or nonamputations. As no definite rule may be

applied, it is a matter of experience and judgment as to their

preferred classification.



In those instances in which a partially amputated finger has half or

more than half of the pattern area missing, it is given the

classification of the opposite finger. It will be filed in the

amputation group under the classification of the opposite finger and

reference searches should be conducted in all possible classifications

in the nonamputation groups. If two or more of the fingers are

amputated in this manner, they are given the classification of the

opposite fingers only and are governed by the rules concerning

amputations.



Generally, a tip amputation, or one which has less than half of the

first joint amputated, will always be printed in the future.

Therefore, a partially amputated finger with less than half of the

pattern area missing is classified as it appears and is referenced to

the opposite finger. It will be filed in the nonamputation group and

reference searches should be conducted under the classification of the

opposite finger, and in the amputation group. It must be referenced

this way even though it never could have originally had the

classification of the opposite finger.





;