I must not gaze at them although Your eyes are dawning day; I must not watch you as you go Your sun-illumined way; I hear but I must never heed The fascinating note, Which, fluting like a river-reed, Comes from your trembling thro... Read more of The Barrier at Martin Luther King.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Home - Disputed Handwriting - Science of Fingerprints

Articles from The Science Of Fingerprints

Water-soaked Fingers

Death Notices

The Whorl

Classification Of Bandaged Or Imprinted Fingers

Permanent Disabilities

General Photography

Problems And Practices In Fingerprinting The Dead

Mechanical Operation

Wanted Notices

Central Pocket Loop


Essentials Of A Loop





- A sufficient recurve.

- A delta.

- A ridge count across a looping ridge.

A sufficient recurve may be defined as that part of a recurving ridge
between the shoulders of a loop. It must be free of any appendages
abutting upon the outside of the recurve at a right angle.

Appendages--Some explanation is necessary of the importance attached
to appendages. Much care must be exercised in interpreting appendages
because they sometimes change the shape of the recurving ridge to
which they are connected. For example, a loop with an appendage
abutting upon its recurve between the shoulders and at right angles,
as in illustration 56, will appear sometimes as in illustration 57
with the recurve totally destroyed. For further examples see figures
161 to 184.



The same is true of a whorl recurve, as in figures 58 and 59.

It is necessary, therefore, to consider and classify figures 56 and 58
as if they actually appeared as in figures 57 and 59.

In figure 60, there is a ridge marked A which enters on one side of
the impression and, after recurving, passes an imaginary line drawn
from the core C to delta D, and terminates on the same side of the
impression from which it entered, marked B, thus fulfilling all the
conditions required in the definition of a loop. X and Y are the type
lines. It will be noted in figure 61 that there is a ridge which
enters on one side of the impression, recurves, and passes an
imaginary line drawn from the delta to the core. It does not terminate
on the side from which it entered but has a tendency to do so. In this
case, all the requirements of the loop have been met, and consequently
it is classified as such.





Figure 62 shows a ridge entering on one side of the impression,
recurving, and passing beyond an imaginary line drawn from the delta
to the core, although opposite from the pattern shown in figure 61.
After passing the imaginary line, the recurving ridge does not
terminate on the side of the impression from which it entered, but it
has a tendency to do so, and the pattern is, therefore, a loop.

In figure 63, a ridge enters on one side of the impression and then
recurves, containing two rods within it, each of which rises as high
as the shoulder of the loop. From our study of cores, we know that the
top of the rod more distant from the delta is the core, but the
recurving ridge does not pass the imaginary line. For that reason the
pattern is not classified as a loop, but is given the preferential
classification of a tented arch due to the lack of one of the loop
requisites. The proper location of the core and delta is of extreme
importance, for an error in the location of either might cause this
pattern to be classified as a loop.

Figure 64 reflects a similar condition.









In figure 65, there is a looping ridge A which enters on one side of
the impression. The ridges B and C are the type lines. As determined
by rules already stated, the location of the core and the location of
the delta are shown, and if an imaginary line were placed on the core
and delta, the recurving ridge A would cross it. This is another
figure showing a ridge which does not terminate on the side of the
impression from which it entered but tends to do so, and, therefore,
is considered as a loop.

In figure 66, we have a print which is similar in many respects to the
one described in the preceding paragraph, but here the recurving ridge
A continues and tends to terminate on the opposite side of the
impression from which it entered. For this reason the pattern is not a
loop, but a tented arch. The recurving ridge must touch or pass the
imaginary line between delta and core and at least tend to pass out
toward the side from which it entered, so that a ridge count of at
least one can be obtained.



Figure 67 shows a ridge which enters on one side of the impression
and, after flowing toward the center, turns or loops on itself and
terminates on the same side from whence it entered. This pattern would
be classified as a loop. This pattern should be distinguished from the
pattern appearing in figure 139. Careful study of the pattern in
figure 67 reveals that the core is located at C and the delta D. The
imaginary line between these points will be crossed by the ridge
forming a loop. In figure 139, the core is located on the recurve and
an imaginary line between the delta and the core does not cross a
looping ridge. Figure 139 is thus classified as a tented arch, as will
be seen later.

Figure 68 shows at the center of the print a ridge which forms a
pocket. It will be noticed that ridge A does not begin on the edge of
the print, but this is of no significance. The ridge A within the
pattern area recurves or loops, passing the imaginary line between the
delta and the core, and tends to terminate toward the same side of the
impression from whence it entered. This is a loop pattern possessing
all of the requirements.

In figures 69 and 70, it will be observed that there is a ridge
entering on one side of the pattern which recurves and then turns back
on itself. These patterns are different from any others which have
been shown in this respect but are classified as loops. In each of the
patterns the core and delta are marked C and D. The reader should
trace the type lines in order to ascertain why the delta is located at
point D, and then apply the delta rule.




Figure 71 is an example of loops as they appear on the rolled
impression portion of a fingerprint card.




Right Hand
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Thumb 2. Index 3. Middle 4. Ring 5. Little
finger finger finger finger
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Left Hand
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Thumb 7. Index 8. Middle 9. Ring 10. Little
finger finger finger finger
--------------------------------------------------------------------------





Next: Ridge Counting

Previous: The Loop



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