How To Take Inked Fingerprints



The equipment required for taking fingerprints consists of an inking

plate, a cardholder, printer's ink (heavy black paste), and a roller.

This equipment is simple and inexpensive.



In order to obtain clear, distinct fingerprints, it is necessary to

spread the printer's ink in a thin even coating on a small inking

plate. A roller similar to that used by printers in making galley

proofs is best adapted for use as a spreader. Its size is a matter

determined by individual needs and preferences; however, a roller

approximately 6 inches long and 2 inches in diameter has been found to

be very satisfactory. These rollers may be obtained from a fingerprint

supply company or a printing supply house.







An inking plate may be made from a hard, rigid, scratch-resistant

metal plate 6 inches wide by 14 inches long or by inlaying a block of

wood with a piece of glass one-fourth of an inch thick, 6 inches wide,

and 14 inches long. The glass plate by itself would be suitable, but

it should be fixed to a base in order to prevent breakage. The inking

surface should be elevated to a sufficient height to allow the

subject's forearm to assume a horizontal position when the fingers are

being inked. For example, the inking plate may be placed on the edge

of a counter or a table of counter height. In such a position, the

operator has greater assurance of avoiding accidental strain or

pressure on the fingers and should be able to procure more uniform

impressions. The inking plate should also be placed so that the

subject's fingers which are not being printed can be made to swing

off the table to prevent their interfering with the inking process. A

fingerprint stand such as that shown in figure 360 may be purchased

from fingerprint supply companies. The stand is made of hardwood and

measures approximately 2 feet in length, 1 foot in height and width.

This stand contains a cardholder and a chrome strip which is used as

the inking plate. Two compartments used to store blank fingerprint

cards and supplies complete the stand. This equipment should be

supplemented by a cleansing fluid and necessary cloths so that the

subject's fingers may be cleaned before rolling and the inking plate

cleaned after using. Denatured alcohol and commercially available

cleaning fluids are suitable for this purpose.







PERSONAL ROE RICHARD RANDOLPH SEX

IDENTIFICATION MALE

LAST NAME FIRST NAME MIDDLE NAME--------------

----------------------------------RACE

------------------------- W

FINGERPRINTS SUBMITTED BY --------------

HT. WT.

----------------------------------(Inches)

SIGNATURE OF PERSON FINGERPRINTED 71 170

--------------

1655 Grant Avenue DATE OF BIRTH

----------------------------------6/6/42

------------------------- Chicago, Illinois --------------

FINGERPRINTED BY --------------------------------- HAIR EYES

RESIDENCE OF PERSON FINGERPRINTED BR BR

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------DATE FINGERPRINTEDLEAVE THIS SPACE BLANK

PERSON TO BE NOTIFIED IN 8/12/62

CASE OF EMERGENCY ------------------CLASS

NAME Thomas L. Roe PLACE OF BIRTH -------------------------

-------------------- Omaha, Neb.

ADDRESS 1655 Grant Avenue------------------

----------------- CITIZENSHIP

Chicago, IllinoisAmerican REF.

------------------------------------------- --------------------------

See Reverse Side for SCARS AND MARKS

Further Instructions Appendectomy

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. RIGHT THUMB2. RIGHT INDEX3. RIGHT 4. RIGHT RING 5. RIGHT

MIDDLE LITTLE

[Illustration][Illustration][Illustration][Illustration][Illustration]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------



---------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. LEFT THUMB 2. LEFT INDEX 3. LEFT MIDDLE4. LEFT RING 5. LEFT LITTLE



[Illustration][Illustration][Illustration][Illustration][Illustration]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------



---------------------------------------------------------------------------

LEFT FOUR FINGERS LEFT RIGHT RIGHT FOUR FINGERS

TAKEN SIMULTANEOUSLY THUMB THUMB TAKEN SIMULTANEOUSLY



[Illustration] [Illustration][Illustration][Illustration]



The fingerprints should be taken on 8- by 8-inch cardstock, as this

size has generally been adopted by law enforcement because of facility

in filing and desirability of uniformity. Figure 361 shows

fingerprints properly taken on one of the standard personnel

identification cards from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. From

this illustration, it is evident there are two types of impressions

involved in the process of taking fingerprints. The upper 10 prints

are taken individually--thumb, index, middle, ring, and little fingers

of each hand in the order named. These are called rolled

impressions, the fingers being rolled from side to side in order to

obtain all available ridge detail. The smaller impressions at the

bottom of the card are taken by simultaneously printing all of the

fingers of each hand and then the thumb without rolling. These are

called plain or fixed impressions and are used as a check upon the

sequence and accuracy of the rolled impressions. Rolled impressions

must be taken carefully in order to insure that an accurate

fingerprint classification can be obtained by examination of the

various patterns. It is also necessary that each focal point (cores

and all deltas) be clearly printed in order that accurate ridge counts

and tracings may be obtained.



In preparing to take a set of fingerprints, a small daub of ink should

be placed on the inking glass or slab and thoroughly rolled until a

very thin, even film covers the entire surface. The subject should

stand in front of and at forearm's length from the inking plate. In

taking the rolled impressions, the side of the bulb of the finger is

placed upon the inking plate and the finger is rolled to the other

side until it faces the opposite direction. Care should be exercised

so the bulb of each finger is inked evenly from the tip to below the

first joint. By pressing the finger lightly on the card and rolling in

exactly the same manner, a clear rolled impression of the finger

surface may be obtained. It is better to ink and print each finger

separately beginning with the right thumb and then, in order, the

index, middle, ring, and little fingers. (Stamp pad ink, printing ink,

ordinary writing ink, or other colored inks are not suitable for use

in fingerprint work as they are too light or thin and do not dry

quickly.)



If consideration is given the anatomical or bony structure of the

forearm when taking rolled impressions, more uniform impressions will

be obtained. The two principal bones of the forearm are known as the

radius and the ulna, the former being on the thumb side and the latter

on the little finger side of the arm. As suggested by its name, the

radius bone revolves freely about the ulna as a spoke of a wheel about

the hub. In order to take advantage of the natural movement in making

finger impressions, the hand should be rotated from the awkward to the

easy position. This requires that the thumbs be rolled toward and the

fingers away from the center of the subject's body. This process

relieves strain and leaves the fingers relaxed upon the completion of

rolling so that they may be lifted easily from the card without danger

of slipping which smudges and blurs the prints. Figures 362 and 363

show the proper method of holding a finger for inking and printing a

rolled impression.



The degree of pressure to be exerted in inking and taking rolled

impressions is important, and this may best be determined through

experience and observation. It is quite important, however, that the

subject be cautioned to relax and refrain from trying to help the

operator by exerting pressure as this prevents the operator from

gaging the amount needed. A method which is helpful in effecting the

relaxation of a subject's hand is that of instructing him to look at

some distant object and not to look at his hands. The person taking

the fingerprints should stand to the left of the subject when printing

the right hand, and to the right of the subject when printing the left

hand. In any case, the positions of both subject and operator should

be natural and relaxed if the best fingerprints are to be obtained.



To obtain plain impressions, all the fingers of the right hand

should be pressed lightly upon the inking plate, then pressed

simultaneously upon the lower right hand corner of the card in the

space provided. The left hand should be similarly printed, and the

thumbs of both hands should be inked and printed, without rolling, in

the space provided. Figures 364 and 365 show the correct method of

taking plain impressions of the fingers and thumbs.





[Illustration: 362. Proper method of holding finger.]



[Illustration: 363. Proper method of printing rolled impressions.]







[Illustration: 364. Proper method of taking plain impressions of

fingers.]



[Illustration: 365. Proper method of taking plain impressions of

thumbs.]





;