Articles from The Science Of Fingerprints
How To Take Inked Fingerprints
Classification Of Amputations And Fingers Missing At Birth
The Use Of The Fingerprint Camera
Problems And Practices In Fingerprinting The Dead
Each year new graves are opened in potter's fields all over the United
States. Into many of them are placed the unknown dead--those who have
lived anonymously or who, through accident or otherwise, lose their
lives under such circumstances that identification seems impossible.
In a majority of such cases, after the burial of the body, no single
item or clue remains to effect subsequent identification. As a result,
active investigation usually ceases and the cases are forgotten,
unless, of course, it is definitely established that a murder has been
Reliance is too often placed on visual inspection in establishing the
identity of the deceased. This includes having the remains viewed by
individuals seeking to locate a lost friend or relative. The body is
often decomposed. If death was caused by burning, the victim may be
unrecognizable. As a result of many fatal accidents the deceased is
often mutilated, particularly about the face, so that visual
identification is impossible. Yet, in many cases, the only attempt at
identification is by having persons view the remains and the personal
The recorded instances of erroneous visual identifications are
numerous. In one case a body, burned beyond recognition, was
identified by relatives as that of a 21-year-old man; yet fingerprints
later proved that the corpse was that of a 55-year-old man.
Fingerprints have frequently been instrumental in establishing the
correct identity of persons killed in airplane crashes and incorrectly
identified by close relatives.
In one instance a woman found dead in a hotel room was positively
identified by several close friends. The body was shipped to the
father of the alleged deceased in another state where again it was
identified by close friends. Burial followed. Approximately one
month later the persons who had first identified the body as that of
their friend were sitting in a tavern when the dead woman walked
into the room. Authorities were immediately advised of the error; they
in turn advised the authorities in the neighboring state of the
erroneous identification and steps were taken immediately to rectify
the mistake. After permission had been granted by the State Health
Board to exhume the body of the dead woman, fingerprints were taken
and copies were forwarded to the FBI Identification Division. The
finger impressions were searched through the fingerprint files and the
true identity of the deceased was established.
During a 12-month period, the FBI Identification Division received
the fingerprints of 1,708 unknown dead. Of these, 1,298, or almost 76
percent, were identified. The remaining 410 were not identified simply
because fingerprints of these individuals were not in the FBI files.
It should be noted that in these 1,708 cases, it was possible to
secure legible fingerprints of the deceased in the usual manner by
inking the fingers in those instances in which decomposition had not
injured the ridge detail.
[Illustration: 387. Field equipment for disaster identification.]
In addition to the fingerprints of 1,708 unknown dead, the
Identification Division received the fingers and/or the hands of 85
unknown dead individuals. In these cases, decomposition was so far
advanced that it was not possible to secure inked fingerprints in the
regular manner. Of these, 68 bodies, or 80 percent of the group, were
identified. Of the 17 unidentified, the fingerprints of 14 were not in
the FBI files. In three cases decomposition was so far advanced that
all ridge detail had been destroyed.
In order to emphasize what can be accomplished, it is pointed out that
in those cases in which hands and fingers were submitted, the time
which elapsed from death until the specimens were received ranged from
a week to 3 years. Incredible as it may seem, it has been possible to
secure identifiable impressions 3 years after death.
These statistics of achievement in the field of identifying unknown
dead re-emphasize the fact that in all cases involving the
identification of a deceased person, fingerprints should be used as
the medium for establishing a conclusive and positive identification.
Generally speaking, in the course of their work fingerprint operators
find it necessary to take the impressions of three classes of deceased
- Those who have died recently, in which cases the task is
- Those dead for a longer period, in which cases difficulty
is experienced due to pronounced stiffening of the fingers,
the early stages of decomposition, or both.
- Those cases in which extreme difficulty is encountered
because of maceration, desiccation, or advanced decay of the
These problems will be considered separately.
1. Fingerprinting the Newly Dead.
When the fingers are flexible it is often possible to secure inked
fingerprint impressions of a deceased person through the regular
inking process on a standard fingerprint card. Experience has proved
that this task can be made easier if the deceased is laid face down
and palms down on a table (fig. 388).
In all cases where inked impressions are to be made, care should be
exercised to see that the fingers are clean and dry before inking. If
necessary, wash the digits with soap and water and dry thoroughly.
In the event difficulty is encountered in trying to procure
fingerprints by the regular method, it may prove more convenient to
cut the 10 squares numbered for the rolled impressions from a
fingerprint card. After the finger is inked, the square is rolled
around the finger without letting it slip. Extreme caution should be
exercised to see that each square bears the correct fingerprint
impression. After all the inked impressions are properly taken, the
ten squares bearing the impressions are pasted or stapled to a
standard fingerprint card in their proper positions, i.e., right
thumb, right index, right middle, etc. Whenever possible the plain
or simultaneous impressions should also be taken.
In some cases it will be found necessary to obtain or improvise a tool
similar to a broad-bladed putty knife or spatula to be used as an
inking instrument. The ink is rolled evenly and thinly on the knife or
spatula and applied to the finger by passing the inked knife or
spatula around it. The tool, of course, replaces the usual glass
inking slab or plate, the use of which is extremely difficult or
awkward when printing a deceased person.
2. Fingerprinting the Dead, Where Stiffening of the Fingers and/or
Early Decomposition Are Present.
This second group consists of cases in which the hands of the deceased
are clenched, or the finger tips are wrinkled, or decomposition has
begun, and/or where there are combinations of these three conditions.
Cases of this sort may necessitate cutting off the skin. Legal
authority is necessary before cutting a corpse. Such authority may be
granted by state law or by an official having authority to grant such
In cases where rigor mortis (stiffening of the muscles) has set in and
the fingers are tightly clenched, the fingers may be forcibly
straightened by breaking the rigor. This is done by holding the hand
of the deceased person firmly with one hand, grasping the finger to be
straightened with the four fingers of the other hand and placing the
thumb, which is used as a lever, on the knuckle of the finger and
forcing it straight (fig. 389). The inking tool and squares, as
previously explained, are then used to secure the fingerprint.
In the event the rigor cannot be completely overcome, it will be most
helpful to improvise or secure a spoon-shaped tool for holding the cut
squares or cut strips while printing the fingers, similar to the tool
mentioned briefly in the discussion of crippled fingers. This tool,
somewhat resembling a gouge without the sharp edge, should have a
handle, a concave end, and a frame or clamp to hold the cardboard
squares or strips. In Figure 390, one type of tool is illustrated.
This tool eliminates the necessity of rolling the deceased's finger,
since the square assumes the concave shape of the tool, and the
gentle pressure applied to the inked finger when it is brought in
contact with the square results in a rolled impression without
actually rolling the finger.
Another problem encountered in this second group includes cases in
which the tips of the fingers are fairly pliable and intact, yet due
to the presence of wrinkles in the skin, complete impressions cannot
be obtained. This condition can be corrected by the injection of a
tissue builder, procurable from a dealer in undertaker's supplies. If
this is not available, glycerin or water may be used.
The method is simple. Injection of the tissue builder, glycerin, or
water, is accomplished by the use of a hypodermic syringe. The
hypodermic needle is injected at the joint of the finger up into the
tip of the finger, care being used to keep the needle below the skin
surface (fig. 391). The solution is injected until the finger bulbs
are rounded out, after which they are inked and printed.
Occasionally, in stubborn cases, entry of the needle at the joint and
injection of the fluid will not completely fill the finger bulb. It
may be necessary, therefore, to inject the fluid at other points of
the finger such as the extreme tip or sides, until suitable results
are achieved (fig. 392). The tissue builder has a distinct advantage
over glycerin or water, inasmuch as the builder hardens after a short
time and is not lost, whereas glycerin and water sometimes seep out
when pressure is applied in printing. To offset seepage at the point
where the hypodermic needle is injected, whenever possible, tie a
piece of string tightly around the finger just above the point of
entry of the needle.
When the tissue builder is purchased, a solvent for cleaning the
hypodermic syringe and needle should be acquired, inasmuch as the
builder will harden in the syringe and needle.
Those cases in which decomposition in its early stage is present
belong in this group also. Frequently, the outer layer of skin has
begun to peel from the fingers. A careful examination should be made
to determine if the peeling skin is intact or if a part of it has been
lost. If the skin is in one piece, an effort should be made to secure
prints just as though it were attached normally to the finger. Or, if
it is deemed advisable, the skin may be peeled off in one piece,
placed over the finger of the operator, and inked and printed as
though it were his own finger.
Occasionally the first layer of skin is missing. There remains the
dermis or second layer of skin which is also of value for
identification purposes. This second layer would be dealt with as
though it were the outside skin, using the techniques described above.
The ridge detail of the second layer of skin is less pronounced than
that of the outer skin, however, and more attention and care are
needed in order to obtain suitable impressions.
So far this discussion has dealt with the taking of impressions of
fingers when the flesh is fairly firm and the ridge detail intact. A
different problem arises when the fingers are in various stages of
decay. The techniques of treating the fingers in such cases vary
greatly, depending upon the condition of the fingers with respect to
decomposition, desiccation, or maceration.
3. Fingerprinting the Dead in Difficult Cases.
In cases involving badly decomposed bodies the first thing to do is to
examine the fingers to see if all are present. If they are not, an
effort should be made to determine whether the missing finger or
fingers or even a hand was amputated during the person's lifetime, or
whether the loss was due to other causes such as destruction by animal
or marine life. Deductions from this examination should be noted on
the fingerprint record. This point is made in view of the fact that in
the fingerprint files of the FBI and some police departments, the
fingerprint cards reflecting amputations are filed separately. Noting
amputations may lessen to a great extent a search through the
In making the initial examination, attention should be given to the
removal of dirt, silt, grease and other foreign matter from the
fingers. Soap and water are good cleansing agents. So is xylene, a
chemical which will readily clean grease and fatty matter from the
fingers. Good results can be achieved by utilizing a child's
soft-bristled toothbrush in cases where the skin is fairly firm. The
brushing should be done lightly and the strokes should follow the
ridge design in order to clean not only the ridges but the depressions
as well. In the event that the skin is not firm enough to use the
toothbrush, a cotton swab may be used. The fingers should be wiped
very lightly with either soap and water or xylene, always following
the ridge contours.
At this point the fingers are again examined to determine the
condition they are in, based upon the circumstances in which the body
was found. Study and actual experience have shown that there are three
general types of conditions to be considered: Decomposition or
putrefaction, prevalent in bodies found in brush or buried in earth;
desiccation or mummification (that is, dried out), noted in bodies
which have been found in the open (ridge detail not in contact with
the ground) in dry protected places, or bodies subjected to severe
heat; and the group involving maceration (water soaking), which
ordinarily results from being immersed in water.
The degree of decomposition, desiccation, or maceration varies from a
comparatively early stage to an extremely advanced stage. Accordingly,
each case must be considered individually. For example, what is done
successfully in one case of desiccation may not show favorable results
in another. Hence, the techniques outlined below point out generally
what can be done, and has been done, with success.
When a body is found, the hands usually will be tightly clenched. The
first problem will be to straighten the fingers. If rigor mortis has
set in and an effort to straighten the fingers as previously explained
fails, the difficulty can be overcome easily. Using a scalpel, make a
deep cut at the second joint on the inner side of each of the four
fingers. They can now be straightened with the application of force
(fig. 393). The thumb, if it is cramped or bent, can generally be
straightened by making a deep cut between the thumb and the index
finger. These incisions are made for the obvious purpose of examining
the fingers to determine if there is any ridge detail. Before this
fact can be definitely ascertained it may be necessary to cleanse the
pattern areas with soap and water or xylene, as previously explained.
Next: Advanced Decomposition